JSP

What is the life-cycle of JSP? When a request is mapped to a JSP page for the first time, it translates the JSP page into a servlet class and compiles the class. It is this servlet that services the client requests.
A JSP page has seven phases in its lifecycle, as listed below in the sequence of occurrence:
Translation
Compilation
Loading the class
Instantiating the class
jspInit() invocation
_jspService() invocation
jspDestroy() invocation
 What are implicit objects in JSP? request
response
pageContext
session
application
out
config
page
exception
What are JSP directives? JSP directives are messages for the JSP engine. i.e., JSP directives serve as a message from a JSP page to the JSP container and control the processing of the entire page
They are used to set global values such as a class declaration, method implementation, output content type, etc.
They do not produce any output to the client.
Directives are always enclosed within <%@ ….. %> tag.
Ex: page directive, include directive, etc.
What is page directive? A page directive is to inform the JSP engine about the headers or facilities that page should get from the environment.
Typically, the page directive is found at the top of almost all of our JSP pages.
There can be any number of page directives within a JSP page (although the attribute – value pair must be unique).
The syntax of the include directive is: <%@ page attribute=”value”>
Example:<%@ include file=”header.jsp” %>
What are the attributes of page directive? There are thirteen attributes defined for a page directive of which the important attributes are as follows:
import: It specifies the packages that are to be imported.
session: It specifies whether a session data is available to the JSP page.
contentType: It allows a user to set the content-type for a page.
isELIgnored: It specifies whether the EL expressions are ignored when a JSP is translated to a servlet.
What is the include directive? There are thirteen attributes defined for a page directive of which the important attributes are as follows:
The include directive is used to statically insert the contents of a resource into the current JSP.
This enables a user to reuse the code without duplicating it, and includes the contents of the specified file at the translation time.
The syntax of the include directive is as follows:
<%@ include file = “FileName” %>
This directive has only one attribute called file that specifies the name of the file to be included.
What are the JSP standard actions? The JSP standard actions affect the overall runtime behavior of a JSP page and also the response sent back to the client.
They can be used to include a file at the request time, to find or instantiate a JavaBean, to forward a request to a new page, to generate a browser-specific code, etc.
Ex: include, forward, useBean,etc. object
What are the standard actions available in JSP? The standard actions available in JSP are as follows:
<jsp:include>: It includes a response from a servlet or a JSP page into the current page. It differs from an include directive in that it includes a resource at request processing time, whereas the include directive includes a resource at translation time.
<jsp:forward>: It forwards a response from a servlet or a JSP page to another page.
<jsp:useBean>: It makes a JavaBean available to a page and instantiates the bean.
<jsp:setProperty>: It sets the properties for a JavaBean.
<jsp:getProperty>: It gets the value of a property from a JavaBean component and adds it to the response.
<jsp:param>: It is used in conjunction with <jsp:forward>;, <jsp:, or plugin>; to add a parameter to a request. These parameters are provided using the name-value pairs.
<jsp:plugin>: It is used to include a Java applet or a JavaBean in the current JSP page.
What is the <jsp:useBean> standard action? The <jsp:useBean> standard action is used to locate an existing JavaBean or to create a JavaBean if it does not exist. It has attributes to identify the object instance, to specify the lifetime of the bean, and to specify the fully qualified classpath and type.
What are the scopes available in <jsp:useBean>? The scopes available in <jsp:useBean> are as follows:
page scope:: It specifies that the object will be available for the entire JSP page but not outside the page.
request scope: It specifies that the object will be associated with a particular request and exist as long as the request exists.
application scope: It specifies that the object will be available throughout the entire Web application but not outside the application.
session scope: It specifies that the object will be available throughout the session with a particular client.
What is the <jsp:forward> standard action? The <jsp:forward> standard action forwards a response from a servlet or a JSP page to another page.
The execution of the current page is stopped and control is transferred to the forwarded page.
The syntax of the <jsp:forward> standard action is :
<jsp:forward page=”/targetPage” />
Here, targetPage can be a JSP page, an HTML page, or a servlet within the same context.
If anything is written to the output stream that is not buffered before <jsp:forward>, an IllegalStateException will be thrown.
Note : Whenever we intend to use <jsp:forward> or <jsp:include> in a page, buffering should be enabled. By default buffer is enabled.
What is the <jsp:include> standard action? The <jsp:include> standard action enables the current JSP page to include a static or a dynamic resource at runtime. In contrast to the include directive, the include action is used for resources that change frequently. The resource to be included must be in the same context.The syntax of the <jsp:include> standard action is as follows:
<jsp:include page=”targetPage” flush=”true”/>
Here, targetPage is the page to be included in the current JSP.
Differentiate between pageContext.include and jsp:include? The <jsp:include> standard action and the pageContext.include() method are both used to include resources at runtime. However, the pageContext.include() method always flushes the output of the current page before including the other components, whereas <jsp:include> flushes the output of the current page only if the value of flush is explicitly set to true as follows:
<jsp:include page=”/index.jsp” flush=”true”/>
What are scripting elements? JSP scripting elements let you insert Java code into the servlet that will be generated from the current JSP page. There are three forms:
Expressions of the form <%= expression %> that are evaluated and inserted into the output,
Scriptlets of the form <% code %> that are inserted into the servlet’s service method,
Declarations of the form <%! code %> that are inserted into the body of the servlet class, outside of any existing methods.